olaf ii haraldsson

Olaf II Haraldsson ( 995-July 29 1030 ),a.k.a, Saint Olaf, was King of Norway from 1015-28 . Olaf tried to force Christianity on them, but they revolted in 1029, and drove him first to Sweden and then to Kiev (in modern Russia). It seems that, like many Scandinavian kings, Olaf used his Christianity to gain more power for the monarchy and centralise control in Norway. Olaf II Haraldsson of Norway JOHN JANARO The "conversion of the barbarians" was gradual as Christianity became inculturated among whole populations, and wove an unprecedented fabric of unity among hitherto perpetually warring pagan clans. Especially during the period of Romantic Nationalism, Olaf was a symbol of Norwegian independence and pride. Eysteinn Erlendsson, Archbishop of Nidaros, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Martyr-King Olaf of Norway – A Holy Orthodox Saint of Norway", "St. Olaf, Patron Saint of Norway", St. Olaf Catholic Church, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 'Fact or folklore: the Viking attack on London Bridge', "Bishop John Willem Nicolaysen Gran, O.C.S.O. Saint Olaf is symbolised by the axe in Norway's coat of arms and Olsok (29 July) is still his day of celebration. Olaf Haraldsson had the given name Óláfr in Old Norse. The son of the lord Harald Grenske and a descendant of the Norwegian ruler Harald I Fairhair, Olaf was reared as a pagan and became a Viking warrior in the Baltic region. The Passio a miracule beati Olavi, the official record of Olaf's miracles, contains an episode where Olaf helps a man escape from the huldrefolk, the "hidden people" of Norwegian folklore. His religious code of 1024 is considered to represent Norway’s first national legislation. His name in Icelandic is Ólafur, in Faroese Ólavur, in Danish Olav, in Swedish Olof, in Finnish Olavi. The Church of Norway may be dated from 1024, when Olaf and his ecclesiastical adviser, Bishop Grimkell, presented a religious code at Moster. Olaf II (Haraldsson) Święty, norw. [18] He made peace with King Olof Skötkonung of Sweden through Þorgnýr the Lawspeaker, and was for some time engaged to Olof's daughter, Princess Ingegerd, though without Olof's approval. Among the bishops Olaf is known to have brought with him from England was Grimkell (Latin: Grimcillus). When King Magnus died during 1069, Olaf became the sole ruler of Norway. Son of Harald Grenske, a petty king in Vestfold, Norway,[2] he was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: Eternal/Perpetual King of Norway) and canonised at Nidaros (Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. His name in Icelandic is Ólafur, in Danish Oluf, in Swedish Olof, the Norse-Gaels called him Amlaíb and in Waterford it is Olave. [5], St.Olaf II's Old Norse name is Ólafr Haraldsson. Before leaving, Olaf was baptised in Rouen[9] in the pre-Romanesque Notre-Dame Cathedral by Richard's brother Robert the Dane, archbishop of Normandy. Numerous churches in Norway, Sweden, and Iceland were dedicated to him. Born. Although its facts are dubious, the saga recounts Olaf's deeds as follows: About 1008, Olaf landed on the Estonian island of Saaremaa (Osilia). (Etymology: Anu - "forefather", Leifr - "heir".) He was said to have healing power, which attracted people to his shrine, and various springs were claimed to have sprung forth where he or his body had been. The Norwegian synoptic histories also mention Olaf. The skaldic verses attributed to Olaf do not speak of Christianity at all, but use pagan references to describe romantic relationships.[10][20]. In 1019 Olaf married Astrid Olofsdotter, King Olof's illegitimate daughter and the half-sister of his former fiancée. As a teenager, he went to the Baltics, Denmark, and England, and wintered with Duke Richard II of Normandy on his way home. Thus the kings of Norway promoted the cult of St. Olaf, the kings of Sweden the cult of St. Erik and the kings of Denmark the cult of Saint Canute, just as in England the Norman and Plantagenet kings promoted the cult of St. Edward the Confessor at Westminster Abbey, their coronation church.[27]. [14][15][16] The journey resulted in the Battle at Herdaler, where Olaf and his men were ambushed in the woods. During his lifetime he was known as Olaf 'the fat' or 'the stout' (Ólafr digri; Modern Norwegian Olaf digre). rsta was born circa 970, in Vestfold, Norway. Olaf III Haraldsson synonyms, Olaf III Haraldsson pronunciation, Olaf III Haraldsson translation, English dictionary definition of Olaf III Haraldsson. Eysteinn Erlendsson is commonly believed to have written. It was here he converted to Christianity and was baptized at the Notre Dame Cathedral. When the Danish king Sweyn (Svein) I gained the advantage in England, Olaf went to Spain and also to France, where he was baptized at Rouen (1013). In 1026 he lost the Battle of the Helgeå,[citation needed] and in 1029 the Norwegian nobles, seething with discontent, supported the invasion of King Cnut the Great of Denmark. Many believe Olaf introduced Christian law into Norway in 1024, based upon the Kuli stone. Sigurd was born between 952 and 957, in Vestfold, Norway. The Norwegian synoptic histories also mention Olaf. [6] He was also called Olaf 'The Lawbreaker' for his many brutal ways of converting the Norwegian populace. [41], "St. Olaf" redirects here. Pope Alexander III confirmed Olaf's local canonisation in 1164, making him a universally recognised saint of the Roman Catholic Church. [40] Like Freyr, he became associated with fertility, which led to his adoption as a patron saint by farmers, fishermen, sailors and merchants of the Hanseatic League, who turned to him for good yield and protection. [26] But large stone crosses and other Christian symbols suggest that at least Norway's coastal areas were deeply influenced by Christianity long before Olaf's time; with one exception, all of Norway's rulers since Håkon the Good (c. 920–961) were Christians, as was Olaf's main opponent, Cnut the Great. Ta kasvas üles Ringerikes Kagu-Norras. Olave was the traditional spelling in England, preserved in the name of medieval churches dedicated to him. This may have been in 1014, restoring London and the English throne to Æthelred the Unready and removing Cnut.[17]. Also, Olaf and Grimkell most likely did not introduce new ecclesiastical laws to Norway; these were ascribed to Olaf at a later date. He was the Archbishop of Nidaros in Norway from 1452 to 1458. Sigrid Undset noted that Olaf was baptised in Rouen, the capital of Normandy, and suggested that Olaf may have used priests of Norman descent for his missionaries. The icon of the Madonna Nicopeia,[34] presently in St. Mark's Basilica in Venice, which is believed to have been traditionally carried into combat by the Byzantine military forces, is believed to have been kept in this chapel in times of peace. King Olaf Haraldsson of Norway had the given name Óláfr in Old Norse. She later married Sigurd Syr, with whom she had other children, including Harald Hardrada, who later reigned as king of Norway. [36] But the shrine did not last. He is sometimes referred to as Rex Perpet… Skaldic poetry suggests he led a successful seaborne attack that took down London Bridge, though Anglo-Saxon sources do not confirm this. 995 Died: 1030 k. in Battle. It has been suggested that it could be in Uusimaa. Antatt relikvieskrin skisse.jpg 700 × 665; 119 KB. During his reign, the nation of Norway experienced a rare extended period of peace. This became typical of Scandinavian monarchies. Writing around 1070, Adam of Bremen mentions pilgrimage to St. Olaf's shrine in Nidaros, but this is the only firm trace we have of a cult of St. Olaf in Norway before the mid-12th century. What seems clear is that Olaf made efforts to establish a church organization on a broader scale than before, among other things by importing bishops from England, Normandy and Germany, and that he tried to enforce Christianity in the inland areas, which had the least communication with the rest of Europe, and which economically were more strongly based on agriculture, so that the inclination to hold on to the former fertility cult was stronger than in the more diversified and expansive western parts of Norway. "[21] Winroth does not claim that Olaf was not Christian, but argues that we cannot think of any Scandinavians as fully converting as portrayed in the later hagiographies or sagas. The oldest is the Glælognskviða or "Sea-Calm Poem", composed by Þórarinn loftunga, an Icelander. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. St Olave Hart Street in the City of London is the burial place of Samuel Pepys and his wife. Define Olaf III Haraldsson. He founded the town of Borg, later known as Sarpsborg, by the waterfall Sarpsfossen in Østfold county. [19], Questions have also been raised about the nature of Olaf's Christianity. But Grimkell was only a member of Olaf's household and no permanent sees were created until c. 1100. Its altarpiece contains a painting of the saint, shown as a martyr king defeating a dragon, representing victory over his pagan past. Olaf brought with him Grimkell, who is usually credited with helping Olaf create episcopal sees and further organising the Norwegian church. Modern historians[citation needed] generally agree[citation needed] that Olaf was inclined to violence and brutality, and note that earlier scholars often neglected this side of his character. Olaf II Haraldsson (c. 995 – 29 July 1030), later known as Saint Olaf (and traditionally as St. Olave), was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028. St. Olaf was also, together with the Mother of God, the patron saint of the chapel of the Varangians, the Scandinavian warriors who served as the bodyguard of the Byzantine emperor. role of Olaf II. [37], In the Faroe Islands, the day of St. Olaf's death is celebrated as Ólavsøka, a nation-wide holiday. Olaf II Haraldssön II (sometimes Olav), King of Norway from 1016-29, called during his lifetime "the Fat" or "the Stout", and afterwards known as St. Olaf, was born in 995, the year in which Olaf Tryggvessön … [38], Recently the pilgrimage route to Nidaros Cathedral, the site of St. Olaf's tomb, has been reinstated. [8], St. Olaf was born in Ringerike,[9] the son of Åsta Gudbrandsdatter and Harald Grenske, a petty king in Vestfold,[2] whom later Icelandic sagas would describe as a great-great-grandchild of Harald Fairhair, Norway's first king. Olav is the modern equivalent in Norwegian, formerly often spelt Olaf. [29] One is the killing and throwing onto a mountain of a sea serpent still visible on the cliffside. His popularity spread rapidly; churches and shrines were constructed in his honour in England, Sweden, and Rome. Olaf saw it as his calling to unite Norway into one kingdom, as Harald Fairhair had largely succeeded in doing. An office, or prayer service, for Olaf is found in the so-called Leofric collectar (c. 1050), which Bishop Leofric of Exeter bequeathed in his last will and testament to Exeter Cathedral. S91 Along the Sacred Path ℗ 2019 Rockshots Records Released on: 2019-03-22 Auto-generated by YouTube. In Olaf II Haraldsson …and Danish army in the Battle of Stiklestad (1030), one of the most celebrated battles in ancient Norse history. His remains were enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral, built over his burial site. He is also venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church.[28]. Olaf II `the Holy King' HARALDSSON. St. Olaf was widely popular throughout Scandinavia. By this time he was also being called Norway's Eternal King. In the succeeding 12 years he built his base of support among the aristocracy in the interior and pressed relentlessly for the acceptance of Christianity, using missionaries he brought from England. The oldest is the Glælognskviða or "Sea-Calm Poem", composed by Þórarinn loftunga, an Icelander. He fought against the English in 1009–11 but assisted the English ruler Ethelred (Aethelred) II the Unready against the Danes in 1013. It was originally a gift presented to Pope Leo XIII in 1893 for the golden jubilee of his ordination as a bishop by Norwegian nobleman and papal chamberlain Baron Wilhelm Wedel-Jarlsberg. [citation needed], For centuries, Olaf figured in folk traditions as a slayer of trolls and giants, and as a protector against malicious forces. [a] Grimkell later became the first bishop of Sigtuna in Sweden. His sainthood encouraged the widespread adoption of Christianity by Scandinavia's Vikings/Norsemen. From Thor, he inherited the quick temper, physical strength and merits of a giant-slayer. Olaf II Haraldsson, also called Saint Olaf, Norwegian Hellig-Olav, (born c. 995—died July 29, 1030, Stiklestad, Norway; feast day July 29), the first effective king of all Norway and the country’s patron saint, who achieved a 12-year respite from Danish domination and extensively increased the … For various reasons, most importantly the death of King Cnut the Great in 1035 but perhaps also a certain discontent among Norwegian nobles with Danish rule in the years after Olaf's death in 1030, Olaf's illegitimate son with the concubine Alvhild, Magnus the Good, assumed power in Norway, and eventually also in Denmark. Olaf seized the opportunity to win back the kingdom, but he fell in 1030 at the Battle of Stiklestad, where some of his own subjects from central Norway took arms against him. [10], Icelanders also wrote extensively about Olaf and there are several Icelandic sagas about him, including Fagrskinna (c. 1220) and Morkinskinna (c. 1225–1235). St Olave's Church, York, is referred to in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 1055[33] as the place of burial of its founder, Earl Siward. Jump to: General, Art, Business, Computing, Medicine, Miscellaneous, Religion, Science, Slang, Sports, Tech, Phrases We found 6 dictionaries with English definitions that include the word olaf ii haraldsson: Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where "olaf ii haraldsson" is defined. In Norway today, he is commonly referred to as Olav den hellige (Bokmål; Olaf the Holy) or Heilag-Olav (Nynorsk; the Holy Olaf) in honour of his sainthood. Maud of Wales, daughter of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, was the mother of King Olav V of Norway, so Olav and his son Harald V, the present king of Norway, are descended from Olaf. In Christian times this legitimation of a dynasty's right to rule and its national prestige was based on its descent from a saintly king. Judging from the bare outlines of known historical facts, he appears to have been a fairly unsuccessful ruler, whose power was based on an alliance with the much more powerful King Cnut the Great; who was driven into exile when he claimed power of his own; and whose attempt at a reconquest was swiftly crushed. The chapel was restored in 1980 and reinaugurated by Bishop John Willem Gran, bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oslo. But Olaf II died before the East-West Schism and a strict Roman Rite was not well-established in Scandinavia at the time. But their regency was unpopular, and when Olaf's illegitimate son Magnus ('the Good') laid claim to the Norwegian throne, Svein and Ælfgifu were forced to flee. Olaf sündis 995. aastal Harald Grenske peres ning oli Harald Kaunisjuukse lapselapselaps. [citation needed], Many texts have information about Olaf Haraldsson. Olaf has traditionally been seen as leading the Christianisation of Norway, but most scholars of the period now believe that Olaf had little to do with the process. Born: abt. Olaf resolved his conflict with the Swedish king Olaf Skötkonung by 1019 and joined forces with the king’s son Anund Jakob when Canute, king of England and Denmark, threatened to conquer Norway. He became an equally important saint of the Eastern Orthodox Church (feast day 29 July) and one of the last famous saints before the Great Schism. Only the Rokokoportal ("Rococo Portal"), built in 1754, remains to mark the spot. On the way home he wintered with Duke Richard II of Normandy. At this time, local bishops and their people recognised and proclaimed a person a saint, and a formal canonisation procedure through the papal curia was not customary; in Olaf's case, this did not happen until 1888. Died Olaf's local canonization ( The first people honored as saints were the martyrs. When King Magnus died during 1069, Olaf became the sole ruler of Norway. This church is believed to have been near the church of Hagia Irene in Constantinople. [4], The saga of Olav Haraldsson and the legend of Olaf the Saint became central to a national identity. The Finns pursued them and made the same progress on land as Olaf and his men made on water. But Olaf's success was short-lived. He was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: Eternal/Perpetual King of Norway) and canonised at Nidaros by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. Olaf II Haraldsson , also called "the Fat" or "the Stout" during his lifetime, was born in 995 (the year in which Olaf Tryggvessön arrived in Norway.) In pagan times, Scandinavian kings derived their right to rule from their claims of descent from the Norse god Odin, or in the case of the kings of the Swedes at Old Uppsala, from Freyr. Several churches in England were dedicated to him (often as St Olave); the name was presumably popular with Scandinavian immigrants. Norsemen had conquered this region in 881. Norway 1020 AD.png 1,134 × 2,002; 337 KB. Olaf II Haraldsson, also called Saint Olaf, Norwegian Hellig-Olav, (born c. 995—died July 29, 1030, Stiklestad, Norway; feast day July 29), the first effective king of all Norway and the country’s patron saint, who achieved a 12-year respite from Danish domination and extensively increased the acceptance of Christianity. It also led to the naming of St Olave's Grammar School, which was established in 1571 and was in Tooley Street until 1968, when it moved to Orpington, Kent. Olav is the modern equivalent in Norwegian, formerly often spelt Olaf. Olaf attempted to reconquer Norway in 1030 with help from Anund Jakob but was defeated by a superior Norwegian peasant and Danish army in the Battle of Stiklestad (1030), one of the most celebrated battles in ancient Norse history. A notable one is The Passion and the Miracles of the Blessed Olafr.[11]. Numerous royal, grand ducal and ducal lines are descended from Ordulf and Wulfhild, including members of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Early depictions of Olaf portray him as clean-shaven, but after 1200 he appears with a red beard, which may have been absorbed from Thor. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Olaf Haraldsson and Olaf Tryggvason are both traditionally regarded as the driving forces behind Norway's final conversion to Christianity. His presence was even felt in Finland and many travelled from all over the Norse world in order to visit his shrine. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Olaf attempted to reconquer Norway in 1030 with help from Anund Jakob but was defeated by a superior Norwegian peasant and Danish army in the Battle of Stiklestad (1030), one of the most celebrated battles in ancient Norse history. Richard was himself an ardent Christian, and the Normans had also previously converted to Christianity. He is sometimes called Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: "Norway's Eternal King"), a designation which goes back to the 13th century. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Olaf-II-Haraldsson, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of St. Olaf Haraldson. He was killed in battle, and regarded by Norwegians as the great champion of national independence and a martyr. Despite these events they survived. Three factors are important: the later myth surrounding his role in the Christianisation of Norway, the various dynastic relationships among the ruling families, and the need for legitimisation in a later period.[25]. A widely used account of Olaf's life is found in Heimskringla from c. 1225. He ordered his ships to depart despite a riding storm. [18] [9] He stayed for some time in the Swedish province of Nerike, where, according to local legend, he baptised many locals. Updates? But this stone is hard to interpret. [39] Around the 12th century, folk traditions and iconography of Olaf absorbed elements of the gods Thor and Freyr from Norse mythology. Narodil se v roce, kdy se Olaf Tryggvason vrátil do Norska a ujal se vlády. 1177–1188). [21] The codification of Christianity as the legal religion of Norway was attributed to Olaf, and his legal arrangements for the Church of Norway came to stand so high in the Norwegian people's and clergy's eyes that when Pope Gregory VII attempted to make clerical celibacy binding on the priests of Western Europe in 1074–75, Norwegians largely ignored it, since there was no mention of clerical celibacy in Olaf's legal code for their church. After the death of his father, Olaf shared the kingdom with his brother Magnus II (Magnus 2 Haraldsson) who had become king the previous year. This is probably why the earliest traces of a liturgical cult of Olaf are found in England. It was founded in 1463 or 1464 by Heinrich Kalteisen at his retirement home, the Dominican Monastery in the Altstadt ("Old City") neighborhood of Koblenz. [35], In Germany, there used to be a shrine of St. Olaf in Koblenz. Åsta was born circa 970, in Upplands, Vestfold, Norway. The exact position of Saint Olaf's grave in Nidaros has been unknown since 1568, due to the effects of the Lutheran iconoclasm in 1536–37. Olaf II Haraldsson, later known as St. Olaf (and traditionally as St. Olav), was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028. Olaf’s popularity, his church work, and the aura of legend that surrounded his death, which was supposedly accompanied by miracles, led to his canonization in 1031. Olaf himself is portrayed in later sources as a saintly miracle-working figure to help support this quick view of conversion for Norway, but the historical Olaf did not act this way, as seen especially in the skaldic verses attributed to him. Olaf II Haraldsson (Old Norse: Óláfr Haraldsson) (995 – July 29, 1030) was king of Norway from 1015 to 1028, (known during his lifetime as "the Big" (Óláfr Digre) and after his canonization as Saint Olaf or Olaus). For other uses, see, "Olaf the Stout" redirects here. The union produced a daughter, Wulfhild, who married Ordulf, Duke of Saxony in 1042. Many Christian institutions with Scandinavian links as well as Norway's Order of St. Olav are named after him. n. Many texts have information about Olaf Haraldsson. In: DuBois, Thomas A., ed. He was probably the only one of the missionary bishops left in the country at the time of Olaf's death, and he stood behind the translation and beatification of Olaf on 3 August 1031. Check out Olaf II Haraldsson by S91 on Amazon Music. 995. These include the Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum (c. 1190), the Historia Norwegiae (c. 1160–1175) and a Latin text, Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium by Theodoric the Monk (c. 1177–1188). Media in category "Olaf II of Norway" The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. For the video game character, see. A Pilgrim's Office in Oslo gives advice to pilgrims, and a Pilgrim Centre in Trondheim, under the aegis of the Cathedral, awards certificates to pilgrims when they complete their journeys. Numerous Danish churches were dedicated to Olaf during his reign, and the sagas give glimpses of the young king's efforts to promote the cult of his deceased father. Olaf was driven into exile in Kievan Rus. After the death of his father, Olaf shared the kingdom with his brother Magnus II (Magnus 2 Haraldsson) who had become king the previous year. [7], Olaf Haraldsson had the given name Óláfr in Old Norse (etymology: Anu- "forefather", -laibaR —"heir"). Harald Grenske died when Åsta was pregnant with Olaf. Olav II Haraldsson (oma eluajal tuntud ... Elulugu. It praises Olaf and mentions some of the famous miracles attributed to him. This calls for an explanation of the status he gained after his death. Grimketel initiated the beatification of Olaf on 3 August 1031. Entry for 'Olaf ii Haraldsson' - One of 8 Bible encyclopedias freely available, this resource contained over 40 million words in nearly 40,000 articles written by 1,500 respected authors Olaf II Haraldsson, born in around A.D. 995, is credited with Christianizing Norway. Saint; King of NORWAY. When he died in 1464, he was buried in front of the shrine's altar. Olaf sailed to the southern coast of Finland sometime in 1008. Other names, such as Oláfr hinn helgi, Olavus rex, and Olaf are used interchangeably (see the Heimskringla of Snorri Sturluson). Saint Olaf ou Olav Haraldson ou Olaf II de Norvège dit le Gros ou le Saint, roi de Norvège de 1015 à 1028, est né vers 995 et mort le 29 juillet 1030. Olaf annihilated the petty kings of the South, subdued the aristocracy, asserted his suzerainty in the Orkney Islands, and conducted a successful raid on Denmark. Olav II de Heilige Haraldson was born in 995, at birth place, to Sigurd Syr av Norge and rsta Sigurdsson (born Gudbrandsdotter). "St. Olaf and the Skalds." Ta ristiti Rouenis, kus ta oleks pidanud kohtama benetiktiinlikku suundumust. HM George I's 16-Great Grandfather. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.com. As a teenager Olaf went to the Baltic, then to Denmark and later to England. Another St. Olave's Church south of London Bridge gave its name to Tooley Street and to the St Olave's Poor Law Union, later the Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey: its workhouse in Rotherhithe became St Olave's Hospital and then an old people's home a few hundred metres from St Olav's Church, which is the Norwegian Church in London. Olaf’s popularity, his church work, and the aura of legend that surrounded his death, which was supposedly accompanied by miracles, led to his canonization in 1031. [3] Following the Reformation he was a commemorated historical figure among some members of the Lutheran and Anglican Communions. [41], Popular tradition also made marks in the ecclesiastical material. In 1152/3, Nidaros was separated from Lund as the archbishopric of Nidaros. The Oldest Saga of St. Olaf (c. 1200) is important to scholars for its constant use of skaldic verses, many of which are attributed to Olaf himself. Olaf (or Olav) II, Saint (Olaf Haraldsson), A.D. 995–1030, king of Norway 1016–29: patron saint of Norway. After fighting the Danes in England, Olaf Haraldsson returned to Norway in 1015 and declared himself king. Corrections? Omissions? In his book The Conversion of Scandinavia, Anders Winroth argues that there was a "long process of assimilation, in which the Scandinavians adopted, one by one and over time, individual Christian practices. Olaf most likely did try to bring Christianity to the interior of Norway, where it was less prevalent. Grimkell was later appointed bishop in the diocese of Selsey in southeastern England. He was the last Western saint accepted by the Eastern Orthodox church. Returning to Norway in 1015, Olaf conquered territory that had previously been held by Denmark, Sweden, and the Norwegian earl Haakon of Lade; by 1016 he had consolidated his rule in all Norway. HRE Ferdinand I's 14-Great Grandfather. Harald was born Before 950, in Grenland, Vestfold fylke, Norge. Olaf lost many men but made it back to his boats. King Cnut, though distracted by the task of governing England, ruled Norway for five years after Stiklestad, with his son Svein and Svein's mother Ælfgifu (known as Álfífa in Old Norse sources) as regents.

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